Robotics: Science and Systems XIX

RADIUS: Risk-Aware, Real-Time, Reachability-Based Motion Planning

Challen Enninful Adu, Jinsun Liu, Lucas Lymburner, Vishrut Kaushik, Lena Trang, Ram Vasudevan


Deterministic methods for motion planning guarantee safety amidst uncertainty in obstacle locations by trying to restrict the robot from operating in any possible location that an obstacle could be in. Unfortunately, this can result in overly conservative behavior. Chance-constrained optimization can be applied to improve the performance of motion planning algorithms by allowing for a user-specified amount of bounded constraint violation. However, state-of-the-art methods rely either on moment-based inequalities, which can be overly conservative, or make it difficult to satisfy assumptions about the class of probability distributions used to model uncertainty. To address these challenges, this work proposes a real-time, risk-aware reachability-based motion planning framework called RADIUS. The method first generates a reachable set of parameterized trajectories for the robot offline. At run time, RADIUS computes a closed-form over-approximation of the risk of a collision with an obstacle. This is done without restricting the probability distribution used to model uncertainty to a simple class (e.g., Gaussian). Then, RADIUS performs real-time optimization to construct a trajectory that can be followed by the robot in a manner that is certified to have a risk of collision that is less than or equal to a user-specified threshold. The proposed algorithm is compared to several state-of-the-art chance-constrained and deterministic methods in simulation, and is shown to consistently outperform them in a variety of driving scenarios. A demonstration of the proposed framework on hardware is also provided.



    AUTHOR    = {Challen Enninful Adu AND Jinsun Liu AND Lucas Lymburner AND Vishrut Kaushik AND Lena Trang AND Ram Vasudevan}, 
    TITLE     = {{RADIUS: Risk-Aware, Real-Time, Reachability-Based Motion Planning}}, 
    BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems}, 
    YEAR      = {2023}, 
    ADDRESS   = {Daegu, Republic of Korea}, 
    MONTH     = {July}, 
    DOI       = {10.15607/RSS.2023.XIX.083}