Robotics: Science and Systems XI

Data-Driven Online Decision Making for Autonomous Manipulation

Daniel Kappler, Peter Pastor, Mrinal Kalakrishnan, Manuel Wuthrich, Stefan Schaal


One of the main challenges in autonomous manipulation is to generate appropriate multi-modal reference trajectories that enable feedback controllers to compute control commands that compensate for unmodeled perturbations and therefore to achieve the task at hand. We propose a data-driven approach to incrementally acquire reference signals from experience and decide online when and to which successive behavior to switch, ensuring successful task execution. We reformulate this online decision making problem as a pair of related classification problems. Both process the current sensor state, composed from multiple sensor modalities, in real-time (at 30 Hz). Our approach exploits that movement generation can dictate sensor feedback. Thus, enforcing stereotypical behavior will yield stereotypical sensory events which can be accumulated and stored along with the movement plan. Such movement primitives, augmented with sensor experience, are called Associative Skill Memories (ASMs). Sensor experience consists of (real) sensors, including haptic, auditory information and visual information, as well as additional (virtual) features. We show that our approach can be used to teach dexterous tasks, e.g. a bimanual manipulation task on a real platform that requires precise manipulation of relatively small objects. Task execution is robust against perturbation and sensor noise, because our method decides online whether or not to switch to alternative ASMs due to unexpected sensory signals.



    AUTHOR    = {Daniel Kappler AND Peter Pastor AND Mrinal Kalakrishnan AND Manuel Wuthrich AND Stefan Schaal}, 
    TITLE     = {Data-Driven Online Decision Making for Autonomous Manipulation}, 
    BOOKTITLE = {Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems}, 
    YEAR      = {2015}, 
    ADDRESS   = {Rome, Italy}, 
    MONTH     = {July},
    DOI       = {10.15607/RSS.2015.XI.044}